Biligiri H.S. 1970 varNana:tmaka vya:karaNa Bangalore University, Bangalore.

It is a collection of special lectures in kannada language. The first lecture deals with language and descriptive grammar: the second with phonemes, morphemes and the word and the last with syntax. It is an assumption among scholars that the grammar is a very technical subject and the linguistics even more. The subject is treated in a direct and convincing manner. The book reads like a long story, simple yet comprehensive, and all aspects of the kannada language is described from the point of view of modern linguistics.

Chidanandamurthy. M 1965 bʰa:sa: vijna:nada mu:latatvagaLu. D.V.K.Murthy, Publication, Mysore.

This book has 13 chapters. As the author himself has admitted, the book has emphasised on historical linguistics. The exposition of descriptive linguistics is also found to some extent. Murthy’s presentation of the subject is quite technical and simple.

Dharwadkar 1968 ‘Kannada bʰa:s̡a śa:stra’

This book is useful from the point of view of the material it contains. Whenever the author takes up certain issue for discussion he quotes in detail the view of different scholars in the field. It also contains many examples.

Dondo Narasimha Mulabagilu 1892 ‘nuDigaTTu’

The grammar was written for the use of secondary schools and training colleges. While writing, the author has referred śabda:nuśa:sana and other ancient grammars. There are three parts in the grammar viz. akas̡ara vica:ra, śabda vica:ra, and va:kya vica:ra. It is interesting to note this division in the description of a language, viz., phonology, morphology and syntax. Surprisingly the author has given the definition of language before referring to the usual grammatical topics. Besides, points of articulation etc., are given.

Hampanagarajayya 1966 Dra:viDa bʰa:s̡a:vijna:na

It is a comparative study of Dravidian languages. The book extending over 463 pages deals with Dravidian linguistics. Much work has been done, mostly by westerns scholars, in Dravidian linguistics in the course of hundred years and such book incorporating all the results in kannada is a welcome addition. This book in 48 chapters with an appendix has gathered exhaustive information by way of theories, views and other means. Much material is found about Dravidian languages.

---- 1968. bʰa:s̡a:vijna:na

It contains most of the topics on linguistics, both historical and descriptive. But neither brevity nor clarity is found in the book.

Harlod spencer 1985. A kannada grammar Asian educational services. New Delhi.

This hand book is designed for the use of those who desire to learn the modern form of kannada, their own mother tongue being English.

In the paragraphs which follow, the roman alphabet, pointed where necessary, is used to indicate kannada sounds.

Hiremath. R.C. 1961. The structure of kannada.
Karnataka university Dharwar.

R.C.Hiremath is a renowned scholar in kannada linguistics and literature, trained in India and Western techniques of linguistics. The work is a special research problem under taken during his stay in the University of California, Berkeley. He has traced the structure of the kannada language on a descriptive level. An interesting feature of the book is that it bases its descriptions entirely on colloquial forms. Analysis of the topics, in detail, of colloquial forms collected for illustration, and attempt to build a system out of the apparent, disorder of colloquial forms are some of the salient features of this book.

John Mckerrel 1820 Karna:Taka vya:karNa Fort St, george college. Madras.

The purpose of writing this grammar is made clear in the preface of the book: “In India, a knowledge of language of the country is of the highest importance to public interests, for without that knowledge no public servant can discharge the duties of his office” that was the purpose of almost all the grammars written by christian missionary authors. Mekerrel wrote his grammar on the basis of śabdamaNidarpaNa by ke:sira:ja.

Kempegowda 1993 sa:ma:nyabʰa:s̡avijna:na bʰa:rati: praka:śana, Mysore.

It is purely general linguistics book. It contains most of the topics on linguistics like, phonology, morphology, syntax, semintax, lexicon etc,…

Kulli G.S. 1976 ke:śira:ja:’s śabdamaNidarpaNa, Karnataka University, Dharwar.

Dr. Kulli has been awarded the Doctorate Degree of the Karnataka University, Dharwar for this work. He richly deserves this Degree for his valuable work. The entire grammar has been rearranged for the purpose of this study and now and then the missing links higher and higher have been pointed out. This therefore, has become a study with the new interpretations which is the Kernal point of the thesis.

1927 Kannada kaipiDi Mysore University, Mysore

It is a reference work on the kannada language and related topics in kannada literature. The object of producing these volumes was to present the material that was available till then. However difficult and controversial topics are generally avoided. It contains five parts written by eminent scholars. There was no single book which could give information about all the branches of kannada literature. A book that could deal with all the branches of the kannada language and literature was a long felt necessity, with that view the mysore university planed the volume.
Part-I (grammar of old kannada) and part IV (History of kannada language) are important for our purpose.

Part I deals with kannada grammar. The treatment through out is on the model of old kannada grammars. In most places, it is a paraphrase of those grammars. This fact need not affect the merit of this book which has become a valuable reference work in respect of old kannada grammars.

Part IV deals with the history of the kannada language. It was brought out in a separate volume. The authors responsible are B.M.Sreekantayya and T.S.Venkannayya, renowed scholars both in kannada language and literature.

A detailed treatment of grammatical topics through various aspects of kannada is found in this book.

Kikkeri Narayana 1994 kannada speech sounds For Second Language Learners. CIIL Publication, Mysore.

Kannada alphabetic order is followed while describing the speech sounds in this book. To facilitate the kannada language learners and to appreciate the speech sounds of kannada, the approximate equivalent in urdu, Hindi, Marathi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telagu and English speech sounds are also given through examples, along with the kannada speech sounds described. If there are no corresponding speech sounds in the language/languages considered for illustration an extra note is given.

Kittel. F 1903 A grammar of the kannada language. Mangalore masel mission book.

This book is based on ke:śira:ja’s śabdamaNidarpaNa. The terminology of his grammar is simple, and set for the three dialects of kannada. They are Ancient kannada, Medieval kannada and Modern kannada.

Krishnarao 1968 kannaDa bʰa:s̡eya svaru:pa

This book deals with the nature of the kannada language. There are 10 chapters dealing with language and linguistics. Origin of kannada, phonemic system, variations in languages etc., The treatment of topics is laboured thought, as the author wants to present as much material as possible.

Kulakarni 1967 kannaDa bʰa:s̡eya caritre.

The author who had his training in grammar in the traditional way had supplemented it further by self-study. The book is the out come of his nearly 40 years of teaching experience and study. The book contains a great deal of information about kannada grammar. It contains 26 chapters dealing with topics like: existence of kannada, kannada and Sanskrit, stages of kannada. The alphabet based on principles of philology etc. Though the treatment appears to be traditional one cannot miss the modern out look and application of modern advanced knowledge of languages. In such a voluminous work, there is bound to be room for difference of opinion about many facts. The work is valuable contribution to the knowledge of the kannada language.

Kulli G.S. 1973 aitiha:sika bʰa:s̡avijna:na sirigannaDa praka:śana, Dharwar.

It deals with historical lingustics in a technical manner and has introduced new technical terms relating to the subject.

Muguli 1971 kannaDa sa:hitya caritre us̡a:sa:hitya ma:le, Mysore.

It contains some parts written by R.S.Mugali. A book that could deal with first three stages of the kannada language and literature was a long felt necessity.
Part I deals with the history of the kannada literature through the various stages of kannada is found in this book.

Narasimhachar. R 1934 The history of the Kannada Language. Mysore University. Mysore.

The book is divided into five chapters. The topic dealt with are: Dravidin languages, place of kannada among these languages, structure of kannada, kannada , borrowings, various stages of kannada and process of language change.

Narasimhacharya R.A.P. 2002. The kannadas Cosmo Publication. New Delhi

The kannadas, with a view to discovering its uniqueness as a vital part of India, and its indebtedness as well as contribution to Indian culture whole.
The reference work, perhaps the first of this kind, show cases the Historical, social, political and literary development of the kannada’s.

Nayak H.M. 1967 Kannada:literary and colloquil.

It is a doctoral thesis submitted to the Indian University. Dr. Nayak has attempted to study the two styles of kannada, literary and colloquial, comparatively. In the first chapter, the introduction, he has produced evidence for the existence of diglossia in early kannada literature. In the 2nd chapter he compares the two styles on the phonological level and he gives exhaustive rules for both styles. The work is an useful addition to kannada linguistic literature. This book being the scientific study of two styles can be considered as the heralder of similar studies.

Pujar, M.P 1952 kelavu kannaDa vya:karaNa vica:ragaLu, Kannada Research Institute, Dharwar.

This book is one of the brillant products of the traditional learning in both Sanskrit and Kannada. Among the several topics, dealt with in this book are kannada phonetics, phonology, active and passive voice etc…..

Ramachandra C.S. 1999 KannaDa bʰa:s̡a:locana ma:ngiri praka:śana, Mysore.

The book being the scientific study of the kannada language and lingustics. There are 12 articles, dealing with language and linguistics like kannada language structure, phonemic system, variations in language etc…

---- 1999 studies in kannaDa linguistics ma:ngiri praka:śana, Mysore.

The aim of this book is to explain various significant aspects of kannada language. It has seven articles. Each articles explains the salient features and some issues of kannada language.

Sanford B.Steever – The Dravidian languages Routledge. London and Newyork.

This book contains readable description of 12 of the individual languages written by internationally recognized experts. Fifty chapter introduces the reader to the language and its speaker, then proceeds to discuss its internal structure in section devoted to phonology, morphology, and the parts of speech, syntax and lexicon.

Sangamesha savadatti matha 1986 dra:viDa bʰa:s̡a vijna:na ru:pa raśmi praka:śana. Kalburgi.

This book is useful from the point of view of the materials it contains. A book that could deal with Dravidian languages and it’s linguistic functions. Like, Dravidian family, Dravidian race, language classification, parts of speech and so on.

----1990 kannaDa bʰa:s̡a vya:sańga ru:paraśmi praka:śana. Gulbarga

The book makes the scientific study of kannada linguistic and language grammar. There are seven chapters, dealing with descriptive, comparative and historical kannada grammar and it also describes different stages of kannada language and grammar. Each chapters explains the salient features of kannada grammar.

Sediyapu krishnabhat 1955 kannaDa varNagaLu kannada Research Institute, Dharwar.

Here is an attempt to describe the kannada alphabet against the background of Dravidian pronounciation. An interesting feature of the book is that it has made use of both colloquial and literary forms. It has also used forms of sister languages, like Tamil, Malayalam and Tulu for comparison.

Shankar bhat D.N 1970 bʰa:seya bagege ni:ve:nu balliri.

There is a collection of popular articles on language and language learning. The articles in this collection may be divided into three categories: nature of language, defects in the procedures of learning and teaching language, and miscellaneous.

---- KannaDa bʰa:s̡eya sańks̡ipta caritre.

It treats in a short compass the history of the kannada language on modern lines. This brief work has trodden new grounds in this useful book. It would have been better if Bhat had written a comprehensive history of the kannada language.

Shankar kedilaya 1970 Foreign loan words in Kannada University of Madras. Madras.

The author has attempted to show the extent of foreign influence in multifarious spheres (such as religion, administration, professions and commerce) basing his arguments on the linguistic loans. Also there is a useful study of the phonetic and semantic aspects of the loan.

Shrikanthayya T.N. 1939 KannaDa madʰyama vya:karaNa

This grammar is meant for middle schools. Notable among the features of ‘Madhyama vya:karaNa’ are that there are no statements of suffix of the first case, omission of the fifth case and separation of compound verbs.

Sridhar.S.N. 1990 Kannada, Routledge, Newyork.

The present descriptive grammar gives a detailed and sophisticated account of the standard language, drawing on the insights of traditional, structuralist, and generative linguistists and on the author’s own extensive.

A valuable features of this grammar is the authors consistent attempt to relate formal and functional aspects of the language. Although the variety described is the standard literary variety (because of its greater morphological transparency), the forms of the colloquial varieties are continuously referred to, and the examples convey the flavour of spoken, idiomatic kannada with its descriptive rigour, range of phenomena covered.

Thomas. R. Truatmann 1995 Dravidian Kinship vistaar publication. New Delhi

The argument of this book is that the Dravidian kinship is an historical contras. Specifically, that the empirial kinship systems called Dravidian are the desendants of common ancestral kinship system. Whence to apprehend the Dravidian kinship system is an act of historical reconstruction, requiring the use of methods and materials of both anthropology and history.

Thomas Hudson 1859
‘An elementary grammar of the kannada OR canarese language’
Wesleyan Mission Press, Mysore.

This book is specifically written for the use of English people wishing to learn kannada. Accordingly every word used in the examples is translated and the pronounciation is given in English characters. This book of over 350 pages treats alphabets, parts of speech, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, and articles in detail and some other informations are also covered.

Tirumalesh, K.V. 2000 The land scape of language (Issues in kannada linguistics) Allied Publishers Ltd., New Delhi

The structure of a language may be linked to the architecture of a natural landscape with its largely autonomous and yet inter connected spaces. And that metaphor informs the contents of this book which is about the form of kannada sentences and words. This is not comprehensive grammar of the language but gives the reader a broad-specim-view of its structure. The main focus is on certain key issues that are of interest to modern linguistics.

Upadyaya U.P. 2000 Kannada Phonetic Reader CIIL Publication. Mysore.

Phonetic Reader is to introduce the sound system of kannada language to non native speakers by providing descriptions of sounds with illustrative example and drills. It is hoped that this will enable the learner to acquire the acceptable pronounciation of kannada sounds.

The present Reader is divided into three parts. Part I, gives a brief description of the vocal organs involved in the production of speech sounds for the correct understanding of articulatory processes. Part II gives a description of kannada speech sounds. Phonetic labels of the sounds and illustrations to show the occurrence of the sounds in different environments are also given. Part III contains contrastive pairs for ear, training and oral, practice, a note on the phonemics of kannada and phonemegrapheme correspondence.

Varadaraj .R Umarjis 1969 ‘The kannada language, its origin and Development.’ Karnataka Historical Research Society, Dharwar.

The book deals with the history of the kannada language from a comparative point of view. The book disappoints us since the author instead of describing the origin and development of kannada has tried to prove that kannada has sprouted from Sanskrit.

William Bright 1958 An out line of colloquial kannada. Poona. Deccan College.

This work is offered as a first approximation to a grammar of the spoken language. The colloquial forms elicited from the informants are analysed in detail on phonological, morphological, morphophonemic and syntactic levels. On a narrow canvas the book has clearly analysed colloquial kannada.

William carey 1817 The grammar of the Karnataka language.

This is the first grammar in the kannada language (19th century). Not only it was the first grammar on modern lines but also the first book to be published in kannada.

William madtha 1975
KannaDa bʰa:s̡eya ru:pure:s̡egaLu, Karnataka University, Dharwar.

A bare outline of all the grammatical concepts of kannada language, it deals with the subject from linguistic point of view.

Zeigler 1872 a practical key to canarese language.

This grammar is again meant for English students wishing to learn kannada. It deals exhaustively with all the topics of kannada grammar. The scheme of the book Is: explanation of English examples in kannada, their transliteration in English and the translation. One of the interesting features of the book is the omission of Sanskrit letters not necessary for kannada. The treatment is simple detailed and easy to understand.

Dravidian Encyclopaedia – 1997 (volume 1-2-3)
** The International school of Dravidian Linguistics

The aim of these books refers to various significant aspects of History, people, culture, language and literature (Dravida)!. Early political movements were for the preservation of the Dravidian identity by differentiating it from other cultures, especially the Aryan culture. The third volume is purely academic. The major and minor languages spoken in India and in other parts of the world have been covered adequately in this volume.

** Source for the : Bibbligraphy part in ke:sirakas ‘sabdamaNidarpaNa’ by J.S. Kulli 1976. pp 271 to 294.



  Kannada Transliteration Kannada Transliteration
Vowels a ಟ್ t
a: ಠ್ ṭʰ
i ಡ್ d
i: ಢ್
u ಣ್
u: ತ್ t
r ಥ್
e ದ್ d
e: ಧ್
o ನ್ n
o: ಪ್ p
Diphthongs ai ಫ್
au ಬ್ b
Visarga h ಭ್
Anusvara m ಮ್ m
Consonants ಕ್ k ಯ್ y
ಖ್ ರ್ r
ಗ್ g ಲ್ l
ಘ್ ವ್ v
ಙ್ ń ಶ್ ś
ಚ್ c ಷ್
ಛ್ ಸ್ s
ಜ್ j ಹ್ h
ಝ್ ಳ್ ļ/L
ಞ್ ń    



 		              RESOURCE PERSON :

                   	          B.R.  SATHYANARAYANA

		                CONTENTS / INDEX

	Topics					  	Page No.

1.	History & Linguistic Classification			1 -   7		  

2.	Phonology					8 -  36

3.	Morphology					37 - 80 

4.	Syntax					    	81 - 108

5.	Lexicon					  	109 - 131	

6.	Literature					132 - 148

	Bibliography				  	149 - 157	


	Abbrevations					Symbols 

Accu./acc.	-  Accusative Case		          	/ /	-	Phonemic
Adj./adj.mar	-  Adjective / Adjectival marker 		{ }	-	Morphemic
Adv./	-  Adverb/Adverbial marker			  ͠	-	Phonological 
C		-  Coda/Consonant				⍵	-	Morphological 
Cas.		-  Causative marker			~	-	Free variation
Dat./dat.		-  Dative Case				>/→	-	Becomes
Der.		-  Derivational / Derivatives			#	-	Word juncture 
Epic./Epi.	-  Epicine				/	-	or
Ex.		-  Example/s				+	-	Combine /with
Fem.		-  Feminine				±	-	With or Without
gen.		-  Genetive Case				: 	-	Long (Length)
Imp.		-  Imperative				v	-	Short
Inf.		-  Infinitive				‘    ’   	-	Enclosure glosses
Infl.		-  Inflectional/Inflection			✓	-	In the Chart it
									Represents “YES”
Inst.		-  Instrumental Case			C1 C1	-	Geminated Cluster
Loc.		-  Locative Case				C1 C2	-	Non-Germinated 
Mas.		-  Masculine				Ø	-	Zero Morphemes
MR.		-  Morphological Rule
M.K.		-  Modern Kannada / Medivial Kannada
N.		-  Noun
NR.		-  Noun Root
Neu.		-  Neuter		
Num.		-  Numeral
Obj.		-  Objective
O.K.		-  Old Kannada
Pl.		-  Plural
Pst.		-  Past tense
Q                    	-  Question
St.		-  Stem
Sing.		-  Singular
Suff.		-  Suffix
V.		-  Vowel/ Verb
VR		-  Verb Root
1st		-  First
2nd		-  Second
3rd		-  Third		



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