V. Speech Community:

A. 1. Identity Group:

Kannada is the official language of Karnataka state. The State of Karnataka has a population of 4,49,77,201 persons, according to the 1991 Census of India. The regional language of the State is Kannada whose speakers constitute 64.75 per cent of the population. Kannada speakers are also the competent bilingual speakers of Hindi, English, Assamese, Oriya, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Maithili, Nepali, Punjabi, Gujarati, The major linguistic minority groups in the State comprise the speakers of Urdu (9.72%), Telugu (8.34%), Marathi (3.95%), Tamil (3.82%), Malayalam (1.69%), Tulu (3.38%), Konkani (1.78%) and Hindi (1.87%). The speakers of minority languages who constitute less than 1 per cent are the speakers of Gujarati (0.10%) and Coorgi/Kodagu (0.25%). The minority language speakers who constitute less than 0.09 per cent are the speakers of Bengali (0.03%), Punjabi (0.03%), Sindhi (0.03%), Oriya (0.01%), Arabic/Arbi, (0.01%) Gorkhali/ Nepali (0.01%) and Tibetan (0.05%).

Language Identification:

a)  Principal language:  The principal language spoken in Karnataka is Kannada.  
b)  Language names: The native speakers of the language used the name ‘Kannada’.
c)  The names used in government document or in the constitution is Kannada.
d)  The names used in English is Kannada.

1.  Identity Group: (mother tongue speakers) and their bi/multilingualism.

The total number of native speakers (usually the first language spoken and referred to as mother tongue) -------------------------------------21710649.

The total number of monolinguals ------------------17995786
The total number of bilinguals -----------------------3714863
The total number of bilingual-males ----------------2288059
The total number of bilingual females---------------1426804

Bilinguals by language: (indicate the language and the number of speakers of each):

    Language name				Number of speakers
     	Telugu					957795
	English					911968
	Tamil	 				764757
	Marathi					503488
	Hindi					336609
	Tulu					101717
	Urdu				  	  78977
	Konkani				  	  25076
	Malayalam			         	  	  23501
	Kodagu				           	    3305
	Gujarati				           	    1838
	Sindhi					        85
	Bengali					        82
	Oriya					        75
	Gondi					        20
	Ho					        20
	Dimara					        15
	Halabi 					        10
      	Bhumij                                                               	        10
      	Nepali / Gorkhali                                               	        10
      	Khandeshi                                                          	        10
      	Khasi                                                                  	        10
      	Thado                                                                 	        10
      	Bhili / Bhilodi                                                     	          6
      	Korku                                                                  	          6
      	Asssamese                                                           	          6
      	Tangkhul                                                             	          5
      	Kui                                                                      	          5
      	Tripuri                                                                 	          5
      	Dogri                                                                   	          5
      	Manipuri / Meirhei                                             	          5
      	Punjabi                                                                	          4
      	Kashmiri                                                             	          1
      	Others                                                           	     5427
      	Total                                                       	                3714863         

The total number of rural speakers -----------17730953
The total number of urban speakers ----------- 3979696
The total number of second language speakers ------- 4621134		

Second Language Speakers by Mother tongue: 

Language Name            	       No of Speakers
Telugu				1336176
Urdu				1079950
Marathi		  		  548418
Tulu			 	  475819
Tamil			  	  406058
Konkani		  		  298472
Hindi			  	  267231
Malayalam		  		  139990
Kodagu		   	 	   51406
Gujarati		      		     1296
English		      		     3369
Sindhi			      	     1484
Punjabi		        		      553
Oriya			        	      356
Bengali		        		      202
Gorkha/Nepli		        	      134
Bhili/Bhilidi		          	        40
Korwa			          	        30
Manipuri / Meithei	          		        24
Santali			          	        21
Assamese		          		        11
Dogri		                        	         6
Kharia			            	         5
Gondi				         5
Kashmiri				         3
Mundari				         1
Thankhul				         1
Dimara				         1
Tripuri				         1
Bodo / Boro			         1
            Total		              4621134

Immediate cognate languages in Karnataka are Coorgi/Kodagu, Malayalam, Tamil.

2.  Functional Group: (cline of bilingualism-wherever research material available) and their mother-tongues:

Principal Country	    	      By sub-areas or regions
State				No. of speakers

Mysore				      19328950
TamilNadu			    	        1056512
Maharashtra			          775354
Andhra Pradesh			          426146
Kerala				            78933
Goa, Daman and Diu		        	            16534
Gujarat				              7124
Madhya Pradesh		   	              6702
Delhi				              3925
Uttar Pradesh	 	 	              3064
West Bengal			              1700
Bihar				              1298
Rajastan				                952
Orissa				     	805
Pondicherry				707
Arunachal Pradesh				384
Assam					239
Punjab					236
Andaman and Nicobar islands			201
Haryana					194
Himachal Pradesh				192
Jammu and Kashmir				162
Chandigarh				142
Meghalaya					  50
Manipur					  43
Nagaland					  38
Sikkim					  22
Tripura					  18
Laccadive, Mincoy and 
Amandivi islands 				  15
Dadra and Nagar Haveli		                    7

Total				       21710649


Kannada is the language of Karnataka. Like many other South-Asian languages, Kannada exhibits the phenomenon of diglossia whereby the spoken language differs to a greater or lesser extent from the spoken version of the literary language. In contrast with literary language, the spoken language is used for informal purposes such as in the home, on the street and increasingly in the dialogue portions of novels and short-stories, in plays and in movies. Most literary activities are carried on in a fairly standard form of the literary dialect.

The speech of educated people of the Bangalore-Mysore area of Karnataka is accepted by most as ‘standard’. This is the dialect used in films and on the radio to a certain extent and the one which educated speakers from other region emulate when they want to communicate with people from different areas.


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