Beg, Mirza Khalil Ahmad (1997) Lisāni Tanāzur [Linguistic Perspective]. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.

The author has divided the contents of his book into four major parts. The first parts dealt with in detail about the linguistic problems and some discussions. The second part dealt with linguistic thinking and research. The third part dealt mainly with Urdu script: standardization and teaching. In the first part of the book, the author under the sub-chapters discussed about scientific viewpoint in linguistics, language and grammar, linguistic research in Urdu, modern phonetics and Urdu, Hindi and Hindustani; linguistic relationship of Urdu and Marathi; the effects of Braj Bhasha (Braj Language) on Urdu. The second part of the book discussed in detail the linguistic policy of Sir Syed Ahmad, Deputy Nazir Ahmad, Pandit Braj Mohan and Tatriya Kaif and linguistic research; Qazi Abdul Ghaffar and Urdu movement; Masood Hussain Khan’s points of views about the origin of Urdu languages; Amrit Rai and problems of Hindi and Urdu; Gyan Chand Jain and stylistic critique point of view. The author also discusses about the need of standardization of Urdu script from teaching point of view.

Maiman, Abdul’ Majid Sindhi (1992) Lisāniyāt-e Pakistan [Linguistics of Pakistan]. Islamabad: Muqtadara Qaumi Zuban.

The author has classified the contents of his book into two major parts. The first part of the book discussed in detail about Urdu language and its dialects spoken in and around Sindh; Urdu in Deccan; Urdu in Punjab; Urdu in Baluchistan; Urdu in Border areas and Urdu in Kashmir. The second and last part of the book dealt with in detail about the states in linguistic perspective; Sindhi state; Punjab state; Baluchistan state; Border state; Independent Kashmir and Eastern Areas.

Khan, Nasir Ahmad (1990) Urdu Lisāniyāt [Urdu Lingusitic]. Delhi: J. K. Offset Press. The author has categorized the whole contents of his book into four major parts. The first part discussed in brief about Linguistics and the second part about Urdu phonology; the classification of Urdu phonemes; the structure of Urdu, compound words in Urdu and the phonological structure of Karkhandāri Urdu. The third part of the book dealt mainly with the problem of translation; the origin of educational terminology in Urdu; coining of terms in Urdu and the explanations of phonetic terminology; the problems of Urdu teaching |learning and the methods of teaching Urdu as a second language. The fourth and the last part of the book discussed in detail about Urdu sounds, phonemes and their phonetic forms; phonetic systems of Urdu consonants and Urdu script and how to learn these script.

Khan, Nasir Ahmad (1979) Urdu ki Boliyān Aur Karkhandāri ka Imrāni Lesāniyāti Motāleya [The Dialects of Urdu and Sociolingusitic Studies of Karkhandri]. Delhi: Idaraye Tasneef. The author has classified the contents of the book into three major parts. The first part of the book dealt with Urdu language and its few important dialects and thereafter discusses what is a language? What is a dialect? And the present condition of Urdu dialects. The second part of the book discussed in detail about Karkhandāri and its structural characteristics. The third part is mainly concerned with the Linguistics and Urdu language as a system of principles; Urdu language and cultural behaviour; the search of Karkhandāri as a social language of Urdu; the problems of scarcity of materials. Social changes and its effects on language variations/ linguistic changes.

Sheerani, Mahmood (1970) Punjab me Urdu [Urdu in Punjab]. Lucknow: Naseem Book Depo. The author in the beginning of his book discussed about the word “Urdu” and its origin; the origin of Urdu language and its close affinity with Punjabi in terms of grammar. He has also made a comparison of the grammatical as well as lexical items of Urdu and Punjabi and tried to show structural closeness between these languages. He also discussed the impact of Punjabi on old Urdu. He deals Braj Bhasha in order to show its relationship with Urdu and Punjabi. The author under the chapter entitled “Punjab me Urdu” writes that it is a new chapter in the history of Urdu language which no one has studied so far. Even the people of Punjab were also unaware of this.

Sabzwari, Shaukat Urdu Zabān ka Irtiqā [The Development of Urdu Language]. Delhi: Chaman Book Depot.

The author discussed about the genealogical classification of language and old and new languages of Indo-Pak; the relationship among languages of Indo-Pak and the outcome of Urdu language. He also dealt with the phonetic variations among Urdu, Prakrit and Sanskrit while making a lexical comparison. He discusses finally about Urdu grammar.

Zaidi, Shamshad (1985) Urdu Zabān ka Sautiyāti Tajziyā [Phonetic Analysis of Urdu]. Aligarh: Maktaba Jamia Ltd.M

The author in his book discussed the phonetic aspects of Urdu language, which includes consonants and vowels; classification of Urdu sounds; phonology; consonant clusters and Urdu alphabets.

Nadvi, Hamidullah (1975) Lucknow ki Lisāni Khidmāt [The Lucknow’s Linguistic Contributions]. Bombay: Ajmal Press.

The author in the major part of the book discusses the great contributions made by the Urdu scholars in the promotion of Urdu language and its dialects has in brief also talked about Urdu language in its theoretical framework. He has also discussed phonology; prosody; dictionary; proverb Neologism.

Khan, Amirullah Shaheen (1983) Jadeed Urdu Lisāniyāt [Modern Urdu Linguistics]. Meerut: Chughtai publishers.

The author in the beginning of his book discussed in detail the various viewpoints about the origin of language; Language families of the world; old Indo-European language; languages families in India; middle period of Indo-Aryan languages and their classification; Western Hindi; viewpoints about the origin of Urdu; North India’s Urdu and movement for the purification of language movement, Lucknow’s Urdu and the purification movement of language of Nasikh; Aligarh movement and expansion of Urdu; the relationship of Urdu and Hindi; Urdu script; coining of terms and Urdu and Modern Urdu linguistics; organs of speech.

Adeeb, Zafar (1976) Urdu Zabān ka Qaumi Kirdār [National Character of Urdu Language]. Delhi: Ala Press.

The author in his book talked about the Urdu language in national perspective. He further discussed languages in historical perspective and the significance of Asian continent (Indo-Pak land). He stressed the point that in every country the languages and cultures come and go, but in this continent (Indo-Pak) the languages and cultures came but never gone and remained here forever. The book dealt with further points keeping in view these important aspects. He also discussed in detail about the modern-Indo-Pak in the light of history. More importantly the book dealt with the modern Indo Aryan languages historically in a very elaborative manner. In this regard, the author took into account the cultural, geographical, social aspects of this continent and also tried to show the relationship among the modern Indo-Aryan languages. This book dealt mainly with the historical aspects of modern Indo-Aryan languages in linguistic perspective with particular reference and emphasis on Urdu.

Zor, Syed Mohiuddin Qadri (1960) Hindustani Lisāniyāt [Indian Lingusitics]. Lucknow: Shahi Press.

The author divided the contents of his book into two major parts:

The first part of book into discussed the following points:

1. Linguistics: Objective, merits and history.

2. Language: Importance (utility), origin and formation.

3. Natural Linguistic changes: Phonological changes, sound changes.

4. Conscious Formation: public sources; scholars effect; explanation of terms.

5. World languages; methods of classification; Different families; Indo Europeans and Indo-Aryan.

6. Origin of Indo-Aryan; Indo-Aryan periods; Aryan’s periods and Grierson’s view point.

7. Modern Indo-Aryan Languages; Northern Western; Southern Western; Central; Eastern and Southern.

8. Non-Indo-Aryan Languages; Dardastani; Avastāni; Indo-Chineses and Kol Dravidian. The second part of the book discussed the following aspects.

9. The Origin of Hindustani; Materials; Different viewpoints and Modern Researches.

10. The Development of Hindustani; Central differences and causes of differences.

11. Literary dialects; Gujarati, Deccani, Northern.

12. Hindustani; Conquerence of Deccan; Movement of Mirza Mazhar and services/contribution of Lucknow.

13. Present Period: The conflict of Urdu and Hindi, causes and the needs of History of Urdu. Khan, Masood Hussain (1970) Muqadma-e Tarīkhe Zzbāne Urdu [An Introduction to the History of Urdu Language]. Aligarh: Muslim Educational Press.

The author divided the contents of his book into five major parts. The first part of the book dealt with the following aspects.

1. A brief History of Indo-Aryan language: Aryans’ homeland and their migration in India; the old period of Indo-Aryan language; the middle period of Indo-Aryan language and the third period of Indo-Aryan language.

The second part of the book discusses the following:

2. The modern Aryan language of India; Modern Aryan languages and their amelioration and western Hindi and its dialect.

The third part of the book discusses the following.

3. Research materials of the origin of Urdu language and the birth place of Urdu [KhaRi Boli]

The fourth part discusses the following:

4. Critique (linguistic viewpoint); Urdu has not emerged from Braj Bhasha (Azad’s linguistic’s point of view) and Punjabi and Deceani (Sheerani’s linguistic viewpoint).

The fifth part of the book discusses the following points:

5. Formation (origin of Urdu language in a new framework – A view point); Deceani and Haryani; Deccani and Mewati and Deccani and KhaRi Boli)

Zaidi, Shamshad (1989) Studies in Urdu Linguistics. Patiala: Husna Publication. The author discussed Urdu phonemes; diphthongs in Urdu; passives in Urdu; Case of Urdu cases; general trends in pet/nick names in Urdu; Perso-Arabic influence on Indo-Aryan languages in a historical perspective; Urdu Hindi through time (Emergence of a common language) and sound symbolism in Urdu.

Shabzwari, Shaukat (1975) Urdu Lisāniyāt (Urdu Linguiatics). Allahabad: Israr Karimi. The author discussed about the origin of Urdu language – its structure and phonological system; aspirated sounds, nasal sounds; proverb; borrowed words; linguistic terminology and glossary. Jain, Gyan Chand (1973) Lisāni Mutāliya [Linguistic Studies]. Delhi: Libert Art Press. The author categorized the contents of his book into five major parts. The first part discussed common linguistics; advantages of linguistic studies; language and knowledge of language and dialects. The second part discussed Urdu phonetics in detail. The third part discussed writing technique (Roman); Dictation of Urdu words; Urdu script and uniform script. The fourth part discussed language and dialect; the linguistic relationship of Urdu and Hindi; the problem of language; Mahatama Gandhi and Bhasha’s question and Bhopali Urdu. The fifth and last part of the book discussed the linguistic services/ contributions of Dr. Zor; terminology – English to Urdu and Urdu to English and some additional informations.

Zaidi, Shamshad (1979) Urdu Zabān Ka Lisāni Tajziya [Linguistic Analysis of Urdu]. Aligarh: Kitab Ghar.

The author has discussed about Urdu language and some important aspects of Urdu phonetics like consonants; Vowels; semi-vowels; Urdu sounds and its categories; Phonology; sound unit; consonant clusters etc.

Kidwai, Sadiqur Rahman (1972) Gilchrist and the Language of Hindustan. New Delhi: Rachna Prakashan.

The author broadly divided his book into four parts. The first part of the book discussed Gilchrist and his age; Fort William College; John Borthwick Gilchrist (Life and personality). The second part discussed the teaching of Urdu as a mother tongue. The third dealt with philology; philology before Gilchrist; Hindootani --- the language of Hindustan; lexicography; grammar and orthography.

Schmidt. Ruth Laila (1999) Urdu – An Essential Grammar. New York: Routledge. The author discussed the various aspects of Urdu grammar in detail from historical point of view. These are: Nouns; pronouns; Adjectives; Adverbs; Postpositions, Verbs; Compound verbs; Intransitive, Transitive and causative verbs; participles as qualifiers; word order and Agreement sentences; Relative and correlative sentences; particles; Interjections and Conjunctions; Numbers and Time; Persian elements in Urdu; Arabic elements in Urdu and ceremonies and pious speech.

Schmidt. Ruth Laila (1970) A Structural Analysis of Hyderabadi Dakkhini Urdu. Michigan, U. S. A; Microfilm – Xerography.

This is mainly a doctoral research work which has come in a published form. This research work of Dakhini Urdu is basically descriptive in nature. The researcher described and analysed the structure of Dakhini Urdu at phonological and morphological levels apart from the historical perspective of Dakhini and its linguistic position.

Schmidt. Ruth Laila (1981) Dakhini Urdu – History and Structure. New Delhi: Bahri Publications Pvt. Ltd.

This book is basically the author’s doctoral research work in which she has described and analysed the structure of Dakhni Urdu at the levels of phonology and morphology apart from its history and its linguistic position.

Khan, Inamullah Sherwani (1989) Tadrīsī Zubān-e Urdu [Teaching of Urdu Language]. Calcutta: Savitri (Offset Printing Division).

The author has discussed in brief about languages: its’ origin and nature; function and purpose of language; the principles of language teaching; the importance of mother tongue, its aims and objectives; origin and development of Urdu language (historical perspective); birth of Urdu language (different view points); Urdu as a different Indian language; importance of language as a medium of instruction; Urdu as a subject of teaching; critical approach to present teaching; essential qualities of an Urdu teacher; speech training; Reading and its importance; importance of teaching of writing; Mechanics of writing; teaching of prose and writing; teaching of writing; teaching of Ghazal; teaching of grammar; teaching and translation; examination and evaluation; teaching aids; importance of co-curricular activities; principles governing the framing of syllabus and text books in Urdu; lesson planning etc.

Beg, Mirza Khalil Ahmad (1988) Urdu Grammar – History and Structure. New Delhi: Bahri Publications Pvt Ltd.

The author has divided the contents of his book into twelve chapters, which are:

	1.	Introduction
	2.	Phonological System of Urdu
	3.	Sources of Urdu sounds
	4.	Phonological changes	
	5.	Free or Non-distinctive variants
	6.	Formation of words by affixes
	7.	Formation of compound words
	8.	Nouns 
	9.	Adjectives 
	10.	Pronoun
	11.	Verb and 
	12.	Indeclinables

Khan, Iqtidar Hussain (1999) A Contrastive and Comparative Study of Standard Urdu and Standard Hindi. Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University Press.

The author has discussed phonology, morphology, morphophonemies, syntax and vocabulary of both Urdu and Hindi and thereafter made a comparative and contrastive study at various levels of language in order to show the “similarities” and “dissimilarities” between the two languages. Jeelani, Kāmran (1992) Qaumiyat ki Tashkeel Aur Urdu Zaban [Formation of Nationalism and Urdu Language]. Islamabad : Muqtadra Qaumi Zaban.

The first part of the book discusses the nationalism and its problems with reference to Asian Continent. In the second part the author discussed the problems of Urdu and Hindi from various angles like cultural, educational, political and national, including the concept of Hindustani. The remaining part of the book talks about nationalism with reference to Muslims; creation of Pakistan and Linguistic position. He also critically discusses the question of medium of instruction: if Urdu (the national language of Pakistan) should be the medium of instruction, then why and, if English, then why?

Crystal, David (1988) Lisāniyat keya hai? [What is Linguistics?]. (Tr. Naseer Ahmad Khan) Delhi: J.K. Offset Printers.

The original book in English entitled What is Linguistics? has been translated by Naseer Ahmad Khan in Urdu. This is a basic book on Linguistics, useful for those students of Urdu who are interested in understanding Linguistics.

Zakir, Mohammad (1970) Lessons in Urdu Script, New Delhi : Sangam Printing Works. This book mainly discusses at length about Urdu Script the non-connector letters; diacritical marks (used in transcription); the ten vowel sounds of Urdu and their transliteration; short vowel markers (Zabar, Zēr and pēsh); orthographical markers (jazm and tashdeed); nasalization (Nun-e Ghuna); aspirated consonantal sounds (do chashmi he); the cardinal numbers (ginti); decimal (āshariya); khara Zabar and tanwīn and many other diacritic markers used in Urdu script. It provides basic information regarding Urdu script.

Gleason, A.A. (1979) Tauzihi Lisāniyat [Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics]. Tr. Atteque Ahmad Siddique. Delhi: J.K. Offset Printers.

This book discusses at length the linguistic descriptions of English language and it is hoped that it will be helpful to the students of Urdu Linguistics and all those who are willing to study the structure of English in Urdu.

Kamran, Jeelani (1985) Angrezi Zaban Aur Adab ki Tadrees me Qaumi Zaban ka Kirdar [The role of National Language in teaching English Language and Literature]. Islamabad: Muqtadra Qaumi Zaban. The author in the first part of the book discusses at length about English with reference to the coming of East India Company in the Asian Continent. The second part discusses at length what should be methods of teaching of English language and its literature, as well as the role of national language in teaching English language and its literature. The third part discusses the role of national language in teaching in detail.

Schimmel, Annemarie (1975) A History of Indian Literature: Classical Urdu Literature from the Beginning to Iqbal. Volume VIII- Fasc. 3, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasssowitz. Written by famous Russian Urdu scholar, A. Schimmel, this fascicle deals with the history of Urdu literature from middle of the XIXth century to Iqbal and his period. It is divided into three part: Part-I focuses on the beginnings of Urdu literature in North India since 12th to 14th century and development of Urdu literature in the Daccan since 15th to 17th century. Part-II discusses the arrival of Vali’s Diwān in Delhi and his impact on Delhi School. Part- III covers Ghalib and his age, the reformists, the beginning of the Urdu novel and drama. Writers of the transitional period and Muhammad Iqbal have also been covered in this part.

Iqbal, Afzaluddin (1981) Junoobi Hind ki Urdu Sahafat 1857 Se [Urdu Journalism in South India since 1857]. Hyderabad: Moin Publication.

The book discusses the meaning and origin of the word ‘Journalism’, its prevalence in Northern and South India, and also focuses on the Journalism in Indian regional languages. The Urdu and Persian Journalism including some classical news papers like Jām-e-Jahān Numān (Kolkatta), Aain-e-Sikandar (Mumbai), Delhi Urdu Akhbār, Sayadal Akbar (Delhi) and Khair Khwah-e-Hind (Mirzapur), etc. have been diswcussed at length.

Sadiq, Muhammad (1984) A History of Urdu Literature. Delhi: Oxford University Press. The book is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the historical background, provides characteristics of medieval Urdu poetry, discusses Urdu literature in Golkonda and Bijapur, Vali Dakkani and others. The Delhi School and Lucknow School have been discussed at length. There is a full chapter devoted on Nazir Akbarabadi. Marsiya of Anis and Dabir, and the age of Ghalib have also been covered. A note on the Fort William College translators has been given towards the end of Part I.

Part-II deals with the Aligarh movement, Muhammad Hussain Azad, Akbar Allahabadi and several other literary figures. Different genres of Urdu have also been discussed. Towards the end of Part-II impact of Sukhandān-e-Fāras, Dāstan-e-Amir Hamza and Bostān-e-Khayal on Urdu Dāstān and Masnavi have been discussed.

Ashraf, Umme Hani (ed.) (1982) Urdu Qasīdā Nigāri (Eulogy Writing in Urdu). Aligarh: Educational Book House.

The book is based on twenty one articles on various aspects of Qasīdā written by famous Urdu writers. The book is very informative as it deals with the origin, development and techniques of Qasīdā Nigāri. Articles dealing with different Qasīdās pertaining to Arabic, Persian add Urdu qasīdā writers like Saudā, Zauq, Momin, Ghalib, Mohsin Kakorvi, etc. have been discussed length. Siddiqui, Abulais (1975) Aaj kā Urdu Adab (Contemporary Urdu Literature) Aligarh: Educational Book House.

The author of this book is a famous and established writer and one of the first scholars who was awarded Ph.D. in Urdu on Lucknow ki Dabistān-e-Shairi from A.M.U., Aligarh. This book is a collection of eight articles covering the socio-political scenario of Urdu Literature, modern Urdu poetry, novel, short story, drama, criticism, wit, humour and essay.

Jayaram, B.D. and K.S. Rajyashree (eds.) (1998) Goals and Strategies of Development of Indian Languages. Mysore: CIIL.

Based on twentyfive articles this collection focuses on the following themes.

	(i)	Concept of Development of Language.
	(ii)	Review of Development of Indian Languages.
	(iii)	Strategies for Development of Indian Languages.
	(iv)	Creation of Terminology and Other Reference Materials.
	(v)	Implementation of Official Language Policy of the States.

The Article No. 6 written by A.A. Siddiqui evaluates developmental programme regarding Urdu. Ohala, Manjari (1986) A search for the phonetic correlates of Hindi Stress, in Bh. Krishnamurthy Colin P. Masica, Anjani K. Sinha (eds.) South Asian Languages: Structure, Convergence and Diglossia. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas.

This paper has discussed phonemic stress in Hindi; Algorithms proposed for stress assignment in Hindi; Phonetic correlates of stress, etc.

Parthasarathi, J. (1961-62) Number case in Hindi, in A Chandrasekhar (ed.) Transactions of the Linguistic Circle of Delhi. The Linguistic Circle of Delhi.

This paper has dealt with the number-case declension in Hindi/Urdu.

Masica, Colin P. (1991) The Indo- Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This book provides a general introduction to Indo-Aryan languages, its history and structure, and it is a useful hand books for both who are totally unacquainted with Indo-Aryan languages and those who may have knowledge of one or more of them and want to acquaint themselves with the broader linguistic content.

Hall, Kira (2001) “Unnatural” gender in Hindi, in Marlis Helinger and Hadumod Bubmann (eds.) Gender Across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

This article has discussed the gender in Hindi language system and the uses of the gender system by Hindi-speaking Hijras.

Lust, Burbar C. et all (2000) Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns is Selected South Asian Languages: A Principle Typology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

This book is a collection of articles on lexical anaphors and pronouns in various South Asian languages including Hindi/Urdu.

Shapiro, Michael C. and Harold F. Schiffman (1981) Language and Society in South Asia. New Delhi: Shantilal Jain.

This book presents an overview of linguistic diversity in South Asia and places this diversity in a cultural context. It describes the current state of knowledge concerning socially conditioned language variation on the subcontinent. It has dealt with the major issues involved in a number of aspects of socio-linguistic diversity in South Asia. It has also dealt with the issues like social dialectology bilingualism and multilingualism in South Asia, pidginization, creolization, South Asian English, ethnographic semantics and the ethnography of speaking. Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1960) Indo-Aryan and Hindi (Second Edition). New Delhi: K.V. Sachdeva, Skylark Printers.

This book has been divided into two major parts : the first part is a collection of four lectures on the evolution of the Aryan speech in India, and the second part is a collection of four lectures on the development of Hindi, the New Indo-Aryan lingua-franca’.

J. Ronald, L. Breton (1977) Atlas of the Languages and Ethnic Communities of South Asia. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

This atlas comprises of two parts. The first part includes a discursive mode, the general relationship between language and ethno cultural structure of subcontinent. The second part aims at analyzing the regional distribution of language and ethnic communities through graphics. It provides fifty plates (updated and partly re-drawn from the first edition) plus ten new ones, some of which were issued through CAD (Computer Assisted Design). Each plate carries a commentary on the facing page. The whole work follows the rule of contemporary graphic semiology and is thus a semiographic analysis.

Annotated Bibliography

Sadiq, Mohammed (1947) Twentieth-Century Urdu Literature. Bombay: Padma Publications Ltd. This book provides a brief description on the life history and literary works of various 20th century poets, novelists, short story writers, humorists, etc. of Urdu. It has also thrown light on Urdu journalism.

Saksena, Ram Baboo (n.d.) History of Urdu Literature. (Translated by Mirza Mohammed Askari as Tarīkh Adab Urdu) Lucknow: Munshi Naval Kirshor.

This book presented a detailed description on the life history and literary works of various poets and writers of Urdu.

Wasif, Azhafizur Rehman (1979) Adbi Bhūl Bhulayyan. Delhi: Colour Printing Press. This book presented an overview of criticism and research on various aspects of Urdu literature. Saqib, Shahabuddin (1990) Anjuman Taraqi-e-Urdu ki Ilmi aur Adbi Khidmat. Aligarh: Litho Colour Printers.

This book has presented a detailed description on literary works of Anjuman Taraqi-e-Urdu. Ismat, Javed (1981) Nai Urdu Qawāid (New Urdu Grammar). New Delhi: Taraqqi Urdu Bureau. This book broadly dealt with the phonetics, morphology, syntax, etc. of Urdu language. Here a list of Urdu to English and English to Urdu Terminologies have been given.

Khan, Naseer Ahmad (1991) Urdu Sāxt ke Bunyādi Anāsir. New Delhi: Urdu Mahal Publication. This book dealt with phonemics, phonotactics, morphophonemics, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, orthography etc. of Urdu language.

Husain, Tariq (1987) Linguistic Treatment of English Loan Words in Urdu. Aligarh: Akhtar Printing Works.

Narang, Gopi Chand (1961) Karkhandari Dialect of Delhi Urdu. New Delhi: Amarnath, Manager, the Claxton Press Private Ltd.

The author divided this book into six major parts. The first part dealt with the origin of the word Karkhana: what is Karkhandari dialect of Urdu? Where is it spoken? What is its history? The second part dealt with the phonology; the third part dealt with grammar; the fourth part dealt with vocabulary; the fifth part briefly dealt with the similarities between old Urdu and Karkhandari; the sixth part dealt with the examples of various texts using this dialect. Khan, Masood Hussain (1966) Sher-o-Zaban. Hyderabad: National Fine Printing Press.

This book is a collection of various critical and linguistic articles of the author, which were published in different Urdu magazines. The author has divided his book into two major parts: Poetry and Language. The first part dealt with the birth of poetry phonetic studies of poetry, relationship between society and poetry, the art of poetry etc. The Second part dealt with the progress and downfall of Urdu, a dilemma between old Urdu and new Urdu in Deccan, Aligarh movement, Muslim University and a sketch of Urdu language phonetics.

Siddqui, S.A. (1976) Adab aur Lisāniyāt. Deoband: Mehboob Printing Press.

This book is a collection of different articles on the theme related to linguistics and literature which were published in different journals and newspaper. In total there are eight articles, the first article dealt with the role of Punjab in the progress of Urdu poetry (nazm); the second one is about the new face of Urdu marsiyah (poem written in grief of somebody’s death) and its structure; the third article is about Urdu orthography. In the fourth article he has discussed the phonemic status of different sounds in Urdu. The fifth article is related to the description of morphemes, how different words are made by adding prefixes, suffixes and infixes, to the main word, etc. The sixth article dealt with the educational problems related to the script of Urdu language. The seventh article dealt with the beginning of linguistic studies and its progress in Urdu. The eighth and last article is about linguistic terminologies in Urdu. Hashmi, Maulvi Abdul Quddus (n.d) Hamara Rasmul Khat. Delhi : AnjumanTarraqi Urdu (Hind).

This book is a brief work on Urdu script. Here the author supports the Urdu language and its script and briefly describes how it is better than Devanagri and Roman script. Here the author differs from the general view that Devanagri is a very systematic script. The book is so brief that it does not even have chapterization.

Bukhari, Suhail (1991) Lisani Maqalat. Islamabad: Muqtadrah Qaumi Zaban.

This book is a collection of various linguistic articles by the author published in various journals. The collection of articles in this book has been divided into two groups. The first group has been named as zaban shinasi (identification of language) and the second group has been given the name Urdu shinasi (identification of Urdu).

Ohala, M. (1983) Aspects of Hindi Phonology. Delhi : Motilal Banarsi Dass.

This book dealt with the phonology of standard Hindi from the generative phonology framework. It has provided evidence for the psychological reality of certain sound patterns of Hindi. Some of the evidence here is from experimental data, others are from hypercorrection, from children’s mistakes, from native speaker’s reactions to certain forms etc.

The first chapter dealt with the segments and features of Hindi that need to be recognized as phonemes, the problem of certain segments that occur only in loans, the features used, including some modifications of Chomsky and Halle features.

The second chapter dealt with the theory of sequential constraints, and some suggested revisions of current morpheme structure theory. The first part of this chapter discusses various theoretical issues relating to morpheme structure conditions (MSC’s) including their psychological reality and the second part deals with the issue of domain.

The third chapter dealt with some experimental evidence for the ‘psychological reality’ of certain ‘abstract’ segments in Hindi.

The fourth chapter provides a detailed account of the initial, medial and final clusters of Hindi, and gives the if then sequential constraints necessary to account for these.

The fifth chapter discusses the problem of nasalization in Hindi, and provides instrumental evidence to show that what is claimed to be [v:c] in Hindi is, in a number of cases [v:NC] (where N = homorganic nasal).

The sixth and the last chapter of this book dealt with a-deletion rule in standard Hindi, the basic environment in which this rule is applied, the morpheme boundaries in the environment of this rule, the application of the rule within morphemes, etc. It takes into account the phonetic environment of the rule and at the same time it deals with the socio linguistic environments as well.

Irfani, Abdul Malik (1989) Urdu Me Adalati Faislah Navisi Aur Muntakhib Adalati Faisle. Islamabad Muqtadrah Qaumi Zaban.

This book is an effort to fulfill statutory needs and to write court judgments in Urdu. It has been divided into two major parts. The first part deals with the rules of writing court judgments. These rule have been written in the framework of Urdu way of writings in order to start a movement of writing judgments in Urdu. Instructions given in various laws about the art of writing judgments have been discussed at the end of this part.

The second part of this book consists of various real examples of court judgments in order to promote judgment writing in Urdu instead of English in Pakistan.

Kaifi, Braj Mohan Dattatarya (1950) Kaifier. Karachi: Anjuman Tarraqi Urdu.

This book briefly discusses the history of Urdu, writing and composition of Urdu language and its orthography.



1. Amman, Mir (1965) Bagh-o-Bahar. Delhi: Maktaba-i-Jamia.

2. Beg, Mirza Khalil Ahmad (1988) Urdu Grammar – History and Structure. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.

3. Chatterji, S. K. (1963) Languages and Literatures of Modern India. Calcutta Bengal Publishers.

4. Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1960) Indo-Aryan and Hindi. Calcutta: Firma K. L. M.

5. Faruqi, Shamsur Rahman (2001) Early Urdu Literary Culture and History. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

6. Grierson, George Abraham (1916) Linguistic Survey of India. Vol. IX, Part I, Calcutta.

7. Jamil, Jālbi (1977) Tārikh-e-Adab-e-Urdu. Vol.1. Delhi: Educational Book House.

8. Khan, Masood Hussain (1956) Muqadmah Tarīkh-e-Zubān-e-Urdu. Aligarh: Sir Syed Book Depot.

9. Khan, Naseer Ahmad (1979) Urdu ki Boliyān Aur Karkhandari Ka Imrāni Lisāniyati Mutal’ah. Delhi: Idara-i-Tasnif.

10. Khan, Naseer Ahmad (1981) Elements of Urdu Structure. New Delhi: J. N. U.

11. Khullar, K. K. (1995) The Essentials of Indian Culture, Employment News 21-27 Jan.

12. Kidwai, Sadiq-ur-Rahman (1972) Gilchrist and the Language of Hindustan. New Delhi: Rachna Prakashan.

13. Shirāni, Mehmood (1966) Punjab me Urdu. Lahore: Maktaba-e-mu’inul Adab.

14. Siddiqi, M. Atique (1960) Gilchrist Aur Uska Ahd. Aligarh.

15. Siddiqi, M. Atique (1963) Origins of Modern Hindustani Literature. Aligarh.

16. Yule, Henry, and A. C. Burnell (1986) (Revised edition, 1902). Hobson Jobson, A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo Indian Words and Phrases. Delhi: Rupa & Co.


Adib, Masud Hasan Rizwi (1961) Urdu Zaban Aur Uskā Rasm-e-khat. 2nd edition. Lucknow: Kitab Nagar, Din Dayal Road.

Afzal, Muhammad Afzal (1970) Bikat Kahāni. (Edited) by Nurul Hasan Hashmi and Masood Husain Khan, 2nd edition. Lucknow: Idara-e-Farogh-e-Urdu.

Ahmad, Nehal (1990) Contrastive Study of English and Bhojpuri. (as spoken in Mau Nath Bhanjan) Phonological Systems. (M.Phil dissertation) Department of Linguistics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.

Ali, Raushan (1972) Aashūr Nāma. (Edited) by Masud Hussain Khan, Aligarh : Department of Linguistics, A.M.U.

Beg, M.K.A. (1988) Urdu Grammar: History and Structure. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.

Beg, Mirza Khalil Ahmad (1905) Urdu ki Līsānī Tashkeel. Aligarh: Idara-e-Zaban-o-Uslub. Haque, Abdul (n.d.) Qawāid-e-Urdū. Delhi: Naz Publishing House.

Hasan, Nazir and Omkar N. Koul (1980) Urdu Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.

Jain, Gyan Chand (1973) Lisānī Mutāle. Delhi: National Book Trust.

Khan, Masud Hussain (n.d.) A Phonetic & Phonological Study of Word in Urdu. Aligarh: Department of Linguistics, AMU.

Mustafa, Khateeb S. Some Aspects of Urdu Phonology. (Research paper).


Brown, Roger W. and Ford Margaret (1966) Address in American English, in D. Hymes (ed.) Language in Culture and Society. New York: Harper & Row.

Brown, Roger and Albert Gillman (1964) The pronouns of power and solidarity, in Thomas, A. Sebeok (ed.) Style in Language. Massachussetts: MIT Press.

Firth, J.R. (1966) On sociological linguistics, in Hymes (ed.)

Fisher, John L. (1966) Social influence on the choice of a linguistic variant, in Hymes (ed.)

Fishman, J.A. (1972) The sociology of language, in Giglioli (ed.) Language and Social Context. Penguin.

Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala (1989) Modes of address and pronominal usage in Punjabi. Mysore: CIIL.

Mehrotra, R.R. (1978) Greetings in Hindi, in Kirpa Shankar Singh (ed.) Readings in Hindi and Urdu Linguistics. New Delhi: National Publishing House.

Misra, K.S. (1977) Terms of Address and Second Person Pronominal Usage in Hindi. A Sociolinguistic Study. New Delhi: Bahri Publication.


1. Sadiq, Mohammad (1984) A History of Urdu Literature. Delhi

2. Abdussalam (1973) Urdu Novel Bīswin Sadī men. Karachi

3. K. M. George (ed.) (1984) Comparative Indian Literature (Bi-Monthly) March- April 2002. Delhi.

4. T. W. Clark (1970) The Novel in India: Its Birth and Development. London.

5. Abdul, Wasey (1979) Fann-e-Sawāneh Nigāri. Muzaffarpur.

6. Ashrafi, Wahab (1985) Biographical writings in Urdu, Comparative Indian Literature. Vol.2, Madras.

7. Fatima, A. (1974) Urdu Adab Men Fann-e Sawāneh Nigāri ka Irtaqa. Delhi.

8. Shaheen, Amirullah Khan (1973) Fann-e- Sawāneh Nigāri. Delhi.

9. Das, Sisir Kumar (1991) A History of Indian Literature. Vol. Vlll, Delhi.

10. Sadiq Muhammad (1984) A History of Urdu Literature. Delhi.

11. Schimmel, Annemarie (1975) A History of Indian Literature. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.

12. Saksena, R. B. (1990) A History of Urdu Literature. New Delhi, Madras.

13. Siddiqi, Abulais (1973) Lucknow Ka Dabistan-e Shairi. Lucknow.

14. Zaidi, Ali Jawwad (1970) Do Adabi School. Lucknow.

15. Sandelvi, Shujaat Ali (1963) Ta’aruf Tārikh-e- Urdu, Lucknow.

16. Sadiq, Muhammad (1984) A History of Urdu Literature. Delhi: OUP.

17. Hasan, Mohammed (1985) Movements and Institutions, in K.M. George (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature. Vol. 2, Madras.

18. Abdullah, Syed (1960) Sir Syed aur Unke nāmwar Rufaqa. Lahore.

19. Ashrafi, S.A. (2006) Fictional Frontiers. Delhi: Educational Publishing House.


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